Commercial banks and co-operative banks are two major divisions of banking sector in India. When the commercial banks contribute to the growth of economy the village farmers are neglected although they pool good chunk of the financial growth of the nation. Co-operative banks have emerged to fill the gap. It is a study on the role of co-operative societies in fulfilling the financial needs of village farmers and in providing their standard of living in Belthangady Taluk, in Dakshina Kannada district, Karnataka state, India. The results show that 75% of the members of Co-operative Societies are agriculturists among whom 80% had taken loan from the Co-operative Society. The Co-operative Societies helped those farmers to improve the standard of living and multiple schemes were planned for farmers' benefit. More than 16 types of financial help is provided by such societies.
After the pioneering efforts oflast many years the micro finance seen in India has reached a take off point. With some more efforts with the collaborative support of SHGs, substantial progress can be made in taking microfinance movement to the next orbit of sustainability. This needs innovative and forward looking policies, based on the ground realities. This will make this sector vibrant and help to achieve its single- minded mission of providing services to the poor and fridge the increasing gap between the demand and supply. Women, through SHGs are very important segment in development at local to global level. Economic independence and education of women will go a long way in attaining self reliance for women. Real change will come when women are treated on par with men and given equal opportunities. The SHGs and microfinance in the study area are taking the lead and playing an important and pivotal role in social transformation, welfare activities and infrastructure building and also they have served the cause of women empowerment, social solidarity and socio - economic betterment of the poor.
The compound (2E)-l-(3,4-dimethylphenyl)-3-(3-methylthiophen-2-yl)prop-2-en-l-one was synthesized by the reaction of 3-methylthiophene-2-carbaldehyde with 3,4-dimethylacetophenone. The structure of the synthesized compound was characterized by subjecting it to single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The compound crystallizes in the monoclinic crystal class with space group P 1 21/c 1. The cell parameters are a = 7.1331(4) Å b = 28.5501(11) Å, c = 7.2354(5) Å , β = 116.873(8)⁰, V= 1314.36(14) Å3 and Z = 4.
The phenomenological non-relativistic quark model (NRQM) has been employed to obtain the masses of charmonium states. In the NRQM an exhaustive study of electromagnetic decays such as radiative, leptonic and two photon decay widths have been calculated. The Hamiltonian used in the investigation has kinetic energy, confinement potential and one-gluon-exchange potential (OGEP). An overall agreement is obtained with the experimental masses and decay widths.