The special banks providing long term Agricultural credit are known as Primary Co-operative Agricultural and Rural Development Banks (initially Land development Banks). The first of this kind of bank was established at Jhang in Panjab in the year 1920. Though, primary Cooperative Agricultural and Rural Development Banks were established dating back to independence, the real growth of these Banks took place only after passing the Land Development Act in the year 1930. These banks were initially called as Land Mortgage Banks as they were financing on the mortgage of Land for which they are used to finance. The Agriculture Credit review Committee in its Report submitted in the year 1989 recommended to incorporate Agriculture and allied activities in its credit policy. But now these banks have included rural credit in its financing policy. Since these banks are playing a greater role in the development of rural area also these banks are now renamed as ‘Primary Co-operative Agricultural and Rural Development Banks.
In this paper an attempt is made to explain the Role of Primary Co-operative Agricultural and Rural Development Banks in India and how these Banks are helping in the economic growth of India.
Family members play vital role in care of persons with sick especially with mental illness living in families. Their care is multiple in terms of taking day-to-day care, supervising medications, taking the patient to the hospital and looking after the financial needs as well as to bear with the behavioral disturbances of the patient. Thus, the family caregiver experiences considerable stress and burden, and needs help in coping with it.
The present study assessed the experiences faced by care givers in care of mentally ill patients living in their families. It is a part of UGC sponsored minor research project. The four rural areas were selected to assess around 100 participants who were taking care of mentally ill persons in their families. The Convenient sampling technique was adopted for selection of samples by making house-to-house visits, interviewing, and assessment of care giving and living conditions in the families. A Semi-Structured questionnaire was used for this study. In the process of development of the tool the investigator reviewed the secondary data on Mental Illness and the validity of the questionnaire was discussed with subject experts from the field of education and health profession and developed the tool.
Major findings were assessed based on the results of the study. According to this research there is mental illness existing in families, most of family members feel that mental illness is a burden, there is negative opinion (stigma) among family members. An unhealthy coping style is likely to adversely affect the care giving function. Hence, it is important to take care of the needs of the family caregivers. The family caregiver has remained as a neglected lot, often ignored by the mental health professionals. This key support system can’t be taken as granted and ignored. Further studies required to provide accurate information for assessment and effective care giving strategies to cope their burden and issues in care giving.
Financial inclusion has increasingly attracted attention of the global community in recent years. The importance of financial inclusion can be explained in terms of maximizing the proportion of population covered by the formal financial sector, to enable the chanelling of funds for productive investment, controlling inflationary tendencies, and monitoring and widening the tax base among other things. This paper looks at the role of the cooperative banking system in promoting financial inclusion. It discusses the genesis of the credit cooperatives supported by the district central cooperative banks (DCCBs) in enabling the provision of financial services to low income families. These institutions are currently the subject of reform programmes intended to make them more efficient and effective as providers of financial services if not necessarily as promoters of inclusion.
Truck drivers are the vital part in any economy as they help us get us the resources, be it raw materials or finished goods. These individuals risk their lives to get these products to the common man but they themselves are denied of certain facilities. They face the extreme weather conditions, uneven road paths and still deliver the goods to the destined place. They face many hurdles on the way to mention a few – robbery, bribe the police and miss their family in this long journey. They face emotional problems like loneliness, not satisfied in their relationships, depression, anxiety among others. Due to this strenuous job the health problems they face are back pain, headache and vision problems. Since they are away from home they depend on the foods that are unhealthy for the body. On the whole this article reviews the overall problems faced by the long route truck drivers. This paper is based on the research articles published on the given topic.
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