There are four forms of capital which contributes to the success of any activity. They are financial capital, natural capital, physical capital and human capital. But apart from these four forms of capital, there is one more invisible form of capital that also contributes to the success of the activity/programme i.e. Social capital. Today, the concept of ‘Social capital’ gained a momentum in the research field and widely discussed by the scholars and considered as a sustainable development of Common Property Resources. By reviewing the literature, this paper explains the concept of social capital, its forms, dimensions and impact.
There are several causative factors of perpetuation of poverty including economic, social, psychological, political, structural, cultural, environmental and physical. Among these the psychological factors particularly behavioral paradigm focus on social psychological reasons influencing the penetration and perpetuation of poverty. As regards the livelihood models of the poor most of them are not sustainable due to the influence of the behavioral structures and patterns of the poor making them circle around the whirlpool of impoverishment. The subaltern culture force them to stick on to such delimiting behaviours whether it is fatalism, idleness, addiction habits, debts, extravagancy, lack of saving, having no future financial plan and a host of others. It is a conceptual paper to analyse the behavioral implications in the perpetuation of poverty and consequently failure in sustainability of livelihood means. Educational illiteracy, growing unemployment, geographical and climatic hit backs add to the menace. The paper calls for studies on prevailing structures and the need for social work intervention in terms of public participation towards social enterprises and social innovations to tackle the unsustainable nature of livelihood models of the poor. Extracts of interview with community leaders are added to support the theoretical framework. Social work methods, particularly community organization must focus upon this area to find suitable remedy.
The radiation damage of proton beam on tissues and cells has attracted attention and the unique radiobiological effects make proton radiation a useful tool for the investigation of radiation damage mechanisms. Potential use of protons and other charged particles for cancer treatment offer several advantages over low LET radiation cancer therapy. In the present study the effect of different doses of gamma and proton beams from the Folded Tandem Ion Accelerator (FOTIA) on human tumor adeno carcinoma (HT 29) cells has been analysed using MTT (Thiazolyl Blue Tetrazolium Bromide) assay. The cell proliferation of HT 29 cells after irradiation has been anlysed using MTT assay after a post irradiation incubation of 72 hrs. The results of these investigations are presented and discussed in the paper.
The role of co-operative societies in fulfilling the financial needs of village farmers and improving their living standards in Belthangady Taluk, Karnataka
Commercial banks and co-operative banks are two major divisions of banking sector in India. When the commercial banks contribute to the growth of economy the village farmers are neglected although they pool good chunk of the financial growth of the nation. Co-operative banks have emerged to fill the gap. It is a study on the role of co-operative societies in fulfilling the financial needs of village farmers and in providing their standard of living in Belthangady Taluk, in Dakshina Kannada district, Karnataka state, India. The results show that 75% of the members of Co-operative Societies are agriculturists among whom 80% had taken loan from the Co-operative Society. The Co-operative Societies helped those farmers to improve the standard of living and multiple schemes were planned for farmers' benefit. More than 16 types of financial help is provided by such societies.
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