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Women Entrepreneurship in Modern India Opportunities, Trends and Challenges

Modern business is witnessing robust activity and innovations in two areas – entrepreneurship and human resource management (HRM) and the two are not necessarily separate. Entrepreneurship is being redefined. With qualitative changes in development indices in general and women development in particular, newer and more challenging areas and roles for women are being explored and extended. Women entrepreneurs are being identified for their independent contributions. Development of women entrepreneurship is considered a lucrative leverage to acquire a level playing field for women, in    a male predominant society and economy.

In a country like India where some of the women are much neglected, there    are some who have soared higher. Thanks to these powerful ladies, that they have faced struggles challenges and made their way to the top list of entrepreneurs in India. This has not only helped the society economically but also has done a lot in terms of exposing the potential that a woman holds. Women as business leaders, team leaders, innovators etc. are having a multiplier effect on the process of women empowerment too. Women constitute around half of the total world population. So is in India also. In modern societies, they have come out of the four walls to participate in all sorts of activities. The global evidences buttress that women have been performing exceedingly well in different spheres of activities like academics, politics, administration, social work and so on. The focus on economic development has made women the ‘subjects’ rather than ‘objects’ of development and ‘change agents’ rather than ‘welfare recipients’. In the past rural women concentrated on traditional activities, but now due to the spread of education and favorable government policies towards self-employment and skill development, women have changed their attitude and diverted towards non-traditional activities too. (e.g. engineering, IT etc.). However, the dual role of women still remains a dilemma and a challenge. Here too many have succeeded in ‘management’ of resources including time. Entrepreneurship provides them a satisfaction and assimilates a deep sense of accomplishment to create their own individuality    in the society. This paper analyses the role and contributions of women entrepreneurs in different sectors. The objectives of this paper are (i) to evaluate the present status of women entrepreneurship and its determinants; and (ii) to identify the various problems and alternative avenues/strategies in promoting integrated women entrepreneurship in India. The study is a qualitative one and is based on secondary data.

A Study on Medical Social Work Intervention and Patient Satisfaction

Social work is a professional and academic discipline that  seeks  to  improve the quality of life and enhance wellbeing of individuals, families, couples, groups, and communities through research, policy planning, community development, direct practice, crisis intervention, ensuring social welfare and security for those affected by social disadvantages such as poverty, psychosocial care to mentally and physically disabled, and raising voices against social injustice for social reforms, including social actions against violations of civil liberties and human rights.

Objectives of the study are to explore the nature of social work intervention   and to discover the relationship between medical social worker intervention and patient satisfaction.

Methodology includes both qualitative and quantitative methods using in- depth interview and structured interview schedule. A total no, of 100 samples were collected for screening and 10 samples taken for case study.

Results and discussion shows that the social worker’s psycho-social intervention in hospital would help the patient to open up and understand their problem, cope with the situation, follow up of the treatment and take proper decision, to lead future life in a better way. This study shows that effectiveness of medical social worker intervention in reducing the psycho-social problems both patient and the family members. Motivation, therapies, different health related educations, positive reinforcement and suggestions helped patients to adjust with the situation and overcome from the problem. Social worker plays a major role in every setting, especially in the entire process of rehabilitation, hospital setting and NGOs to provide psycho-social support to the people.

A Study to Assess the Psycho-Social Problems among Adolescent Students of Selected Pre-University Colleges

Psycho-social problems have been identified as vital among adolescents at particular times when they enter the Pre-University. The various reasons were examination stress, personal and family life events. Psychosocial health problems are one of the hidden public health problems amongst the children and adolescents. Early identification, diagnosis and interventions are very important for preventing further complications. The aim of the study is      to assess the psycho-social problems among adolescent students of selected Pre-University colleges. Taking 286 adolescent students from 3 Pre University Colleges of Belthangady Taluk of Dakshina Kannada district were selected through purposive sampling method. A set of structured questionnaire and Y-PSC was adopted to collect data, which were analyzed using SPSS software. Out of 286 adolescent students 25.5% were suffering with psychosocial dysfunction. Female students (17.5%) were more affected, compared to male students (8%). The psycho-social condition is significantly associated with demographic variable age and the type of abuse at home. More  active  measures like awareness and education programs for students, training for parents and teachers need to be given to take care of psychological and social health of adolescents.

A Study on the Use of Social Networking Sites among the Youth and Their Family

The use of networking sites among the people of India is evidently increasing, particularly among the   college students. It has invariably left a   big impact on society in general and college students in particular. Now social media is an integral part of adolescents and it is the major form of electronic communication. However, this article describes about how the social networking sites influence the youth and their - family relationships.

Objectives of the study are to explore the impact of social networking sites among youth and how these sites affect the family relationship of the youth       as well as to check the negative and positive impact of SNS usage. Methodology includes both qualitative and quantitative research design with descriptive and case study method. A total number, of 30 samples were collected for screening and 10 samples were taken for case study. Here 2 cases were discussed.

 

Results and discussion shows that the usage of SNS has pretentious interpersonal relationships between these students and their family members. Large number  of respondents (63.3%) agreed that SNS has affected their personal and interpersonal relationships. This study clearly pointed out that the personal life and social life of the youth is affected by the use of SNS.

 

Competitive Status of Africa’s Cocoa Products in the World Market

 To formulate efficient and articulated future cocoa policy prescriptions, and ensure the continuous contribution of the subsector to poverty reduction, income generation and growth of Africa’s agricultural sector, the present research empirically examined the global competitiveness of Africa’s cocoa export during the spanning period of 2000-2013. The used dated data were sourced from FAO and UNCTAD databases. Export trends and indices of the revealed comparative advantage, as well as Trade Mapping (TM), were examined for cocoa beans, cocoa butter, cocoa paste and cocoa powder/cake. Empirical findings showed that Africa has only revealed comparative and competitive advantages in the exportation of cocoa primary product and disadvantage in the comparative and competitive status in the exportation of its secondary cocoa products. Furthermore, Africa is among the winner group with it controlling a large chunk of the market despite the decline in the export market of cocoa during the studied period. Hence, in order to enhance Africa’s relative comparative and competitive advantages in the exportation of cocoa products and its continuing presence in the world markets, Africa should improve on the quality of its cocoa products keeping in-view the best marketing grade and standardization for cocoa products in the global market. Also, Africa should invest more in post-harvest technologies to have a breakthrough in the secondary sub-sectors of cocoa via value addition, thus increasing its global share in the market which in turn would enhance its foreign exchange earnings from the exportation of cocoa.