There are four forms of capital which contributes to the success of any activity. They are financial capital, natural capital, physical capital and human capital. But apart from these four forms of capital, there is one more invisible form of capital that also contributes to the success of the activity/programme i.e. Social capital. Today, the concept of ‘Social capital’ gained a momentum in the research field and widely discussed by the scholars and considered as a sustainable development of Common Property Resources. By reviewing the literature, this paper explains the concept of social capital, its forms, dimensions and impact.
There are several causative factors of perpetuation of poverty including economic, social, psychological, political, structural, cultural, environmental and physical. Among these the psychological factors particularly behavioral paradigm focus on social psychological reasons influencing the penetration and perpetuation of poverty. As regards the livelihood models of the poor most of them are not sustainable due to the influence of the behavioral structures and patterns of the poor making them circle around the whirlpool of impoverishment. The subaltern culture force them to stick on to such delimiting behaviours whether it is fatalism, idleness, addiction habits, debts, extravagancy, lack of saving, having no future financial plan and a host of others. It is a conceptual paper to analyse the behavioral implications in the perpetuation of poverty and consequently failure in sustainability of livelihood means. Educational illiteracy, growing unemployment, geographical and climatic hit backs add to the menace. The paper calls for studies on prevailing structures and the need for social work intervention in terms of public participation towards social enterprises and social innovations to tackle the unsustainable nature of livelihood models of the poor. Extracts of interview with community leaders are added to support the theoretical framework. Social work methods, particularly community organization must focus upon this area to find suitable remedy.
The phenomenological non-relativistic quark model (NRQM) has been employed to obtain the masses of charmonium states. In the NRQM an exhaustive study of electromagnetic decays such as radiative, leptonic and two photon decay widths have been calculated. The Hamiltonian used in the investigation has kinetic energy, confinement potential and one-gluon-exchange potential (OGEP). An overall agreement is obtained with the experimental masses and decay widths.
The Role of Co-operative Societies in Fulfilling the Financial Needs of Village Farmers and Improving their Living Standards in Belthangady Taluk, Karnataka
Commercial banks and co-operative banks are two major divisions of banking sector in India. When the commercial banks contribute to the growth of economy the village farmers are neglected although they pool good chunk of the financial growth of the nation. Co-operative banks have emerged to fill the gap. It is a study on the role of co-operative societies in fulfilling the financial needs of village farmers and in providing their standard of living in Belthangady Taluk, in Dakshina Kannada district, Karnataka state, India. The results show that 75% of the members of Co-operative Societies are agriculturists among whom 80% had taken loan from the Co-operative Society. The Co-operative Societies helped those farmers to improve the standard of living and multiple schemes were planned for farmers' benefit. More than 16 types of financial help is provided by such societies.
Self Help Groups and Micro-Finance through Bank Linkage a Study of Coastal Women Community in Dakshina Kannada District
After the pioneering efforts oflast many years the micro finance seen in India has reached a take off point. With some more efforts with the collaborative support of SHGs, substantial progress can be made in taking microfinance movement to the next orbit of sustainability. This needs innovative and forward looking policies, based on the ground realities. This will make this sector vibrant and help to achieve its single- minded mission of providing services to the poor and fridge the increasing gap between the demand and supply. Women, through SHGs are very important segment in development at local to global level. Economic independence and education of women will go a long way in attaining self reliance for women. Real change will come when women are treated on par with men and given equal opportunities. The SHGs and microfinance in the study area are taking the lead and playing an important and pivotal role in social transformation, welfare activities and infrastructure building and also they have served the cause of women empowerment, social solidarity and socio - economic betterment of the poor.